This PPT presentation is based on the topic COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL
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2. communication models
3. Network protocol design principles
4. Five layer TCP/IP model
4. Protocol associated with different layer
It is any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals ,writings, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic system.
A communication model comprises of following subsystems:
• Source – Generates the data to be transmitted
• Transmitter – Converts the data into transmittable signals
• Transmission system – Carries the data.
• Receiver – Converts received signals into data.
• Destination – Takes incoming data.
PHYSICAL COMMUNICATION MODEL
In the field of telecommunications, a communications protocol is
the set of standard rules for data representation, signaling,
authentication and error detection required to send information over
a communications channel.
An example of a simple communications protocol adapted to voice
communication is the case of a radio dispatcher talking to mobile
NETWORK PROTOCOL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
These principles include:-
Needs to be specified in such a way, that engineers, designers, and in some cases software developers can implement and/or use it.
Assuring reliability of data transmission involves error detection and correction, or some means of requesting retransmission.
Re addresses a form of network failure known as topological failure in which a communications link is cut, or degrades below usable quality.
THE 5 LAYER TCP/IP MODEL
5. Application layer • FTP • IMAP4 • XMPP • POP3
• SMTP • SNMP
4. Transport layer .TCP • UDP
3. Network Layer • IP (IPv4 • IPv6) • IGMP • ICMP • ARP
2. Data link layer • PPP
1. Physical layer
LAYERS IN THE INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE STACK
PROTOCOLS ASSOCIATED WITH DIFFERENT LAYERS
DATA LINK LAYER PROTOCOLS-
PPP(POINT-TO-POINT PROTOCOL)- For
point to point access.
1> LCP(LINK CONTROL PROTOCOL)-
Responsible for establishing, maintaining,
configuring, and terminating links.
PAP(PASSWORD AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL)-
Validating the identity of a user who needs to
access a set of resources.
CHAP(CHALLENGE HANDSHAKE AUTHENTICATION
PROTOCOL)- :Greater security than PAP.
:Password kept secret and
never sent on-line.
3>NCP(NETWORK CONTROL PROTOCOLS)-
Set of control protocols to allow the encapsulation of data coming from network layer protocols.
IPCP(INTERNETWORK PROTOCOL CONTROL PROTOCOL)-
Set of packets that establish and terminate a network layer connection for IP packets.
NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOLS
It is the host-to-host network layer delivery protocol for the internet.
Unreliable and connectionless datagram protocol.
It provides no error control or flow control.
It uses only an error detection mechanism and discards the packet if it is corrupted .
ICMP (INTERNET CONTROL MESSAGE PROTOCOL) :-
Designed for compensating 2 deficiencies of IP
1. Lack of error control mechanism.
2. Lack of assistance mechanism.
The value of protocol field in IP datagram is 1 to indicate that IP data an ICMP message.
ICMP always reports error message to the original source.
It provides host to host communication between the systems and the internet.
It has some deficiencies that make it unsuitable now-a-days, including the following:-
It has 2 level address structure(netid and hostid) and 5 classes(A,B,C,D,E).The use of address space is inefficient.
Minimum delay strategy and reservation of resources not provided by IPv4.
No security mechanism was provided.
TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOLS
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
It is reliable but complex.
It is connection oriented.
There is no negative acknowledgement.
The unit of data transfer is segment.
The error detection is handled by checksum acknowledgement and time out.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
It is unreliable and connectionless protocol.
It has no flow control mechanism
The UDP packet is called a user datagram.
APPLICATION LAYER PROTOCOLS
Transfers files to and from a computer running a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server service such as Internet Information Services .
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP):
A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that governs the exchange of electronic mail between message transfer agents
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP):
The protocol used to transfer information on the World Wide Web. An HTTP address (one kind of Uniform Resource Locator [URL]) takes the form:
SNMP provides a method of managing network hosts such as workstation or server computers, routers, bridges, and hubs from a centrally-located computer running network management software.
The widespread use and expansion of communications protocols is both a prerequisite to the Internet, and a major contributor to its power and success.
TCP/IP is included in all commercial UNIX systems, Mac OS X, and all free-software.
Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP; an open source stack designed for embedded
protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints.
without protocol proper communication and data reliability is impossible
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Behrouz A.Forouzan; Data Communication and Networking.3rd Edition.TMH production
Andrew S. Tanenbaum.Computer Networks
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